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点击:  作者:记者    来源:战略家书苑  发布时间:2019-12-17 10:30:35



Washington, DC –  The United States and China have reached an historic and enforceable agreement on a Phase One trade deal that requires structural reforms and other changes to China’s economic and trade regime in theareas of intellectual property, technology transfer, agriculture, financial services, and currency and foreign exchange. The Phase One agreement also includes a commitment by China that it will make substantial additional purchases of U.S. goods and services in the comingyears.  Importantly, the agreement establishes a strong dispute resolution system that ensures prompt and effective implementation and enforcement. The United States has agreed to modify its Section 301 tariff actions in a significant way. 

美国和中国就第一阶段贸易协议达成了一项具有历史意义和可执行的协议,该协议要求在知识产权、技术转让、农业、金融服务、货币和外汇等领域对中国的经济和贸易体制进行结构性改革和其他改变。 第一阶段协议还包括: 中国承诺在未来几年内增加购买大量美国商品和服务。 更为重要的是,该协议建立了强有力的争端解决机制,以确保迅速和有效地实施和执行。 美国已同意大幅修改其根据301法案制定的关税。

“President Trump has focused on concluding a Phase One agreement that achieves meaningful, fully-enforceable structural changes and begins rebalancing the U.S.-China trade relationship.  This unprecedented agreement accomplishes those very significant goals and would not have been possible without the President’s strong leadership,” said United States Trade Representative Robert Lighthizer.

贸易代表莱特希泽说:特朗普总统致力于达成第一阶段的协议,实现有意义的、完全可执行的结构性转变,并开始重新平衡美-中贸易关系。 这项史无前例的协议实现了这些非常重要的目标,如果没有特朗普总统的强有力的领导,这是不可能的。

“Today’s announcement of a Phase One agreement with China is another significant step forward in advancing President Trump’s economic agenda.  Thanks to the President’s leadership, this landmark agreement marks critical progress toward a more balanced trade relationship and a more level playing field for American workers and companies,” said Secretary of the Treasury Steven Mnuchin.

财政部长姆钦说:今天宣布的与中国达成的第一阶段协议是推进特朗普总统经济议程的又一重要步骤。 在总统的领导下,这一具有程碑式的协议标志着(我们)朝着更平衡的贸易关系和为美国工人和公司提供更公平的竞争环境的关键进展。 

 The United States first imposed tariffs on imports from China based on the findings of the Section 301 investigation on China’s acts, policies, and practices related to technology transfer, intellectual property, and innovation. The United States will be maintaining 25 percent tariffs on approximately $250 billion of Chinese imports, along with 7.5 percent tariffson approximately $120 billion of Chinese imports.

美国首次对来自中国的进口产品征收关税,是基于对中国在技术转让、知识产权和创新方面的行为、政策和做法进行的301调查的结果。 美国将对大约2500亿美元的中国进口商品维持25%的关税,对大约1200亿美元的中国进口商品维持7.5%的关税。


Intellectual Property: The Intellectual Property (IP) chapter addresses numerous longstanding concerns in the areas of trade secrets, pharmaceutical-related intellectual property, geographical indications, trademarks, and enforcement against pirated and counterfeit goods. 


2. Technology Transfer: The Technology Transfer chapter sets out binding and enforceable obligations to addressseveral of the unfair technology transfer practices of China that were identified in USTR’s Section 301 investigation. For the first time in any trade agreement, China has agreed to end its long-standing practice of forcing orpressuring foreign companies to transfer their technology to Chinese companiesas a condition for obtaining market access, administrative approvals, orreceiving advantages from the government. China also commits to provide transparency, fairness, and due process in administrative proceedings and to have technology transfer and licensing take place on market terms. Separately, China further commits to refrain from directing or supporting outboundinvestments aimed at acquiring foreign technology pursuant to industrial plansthat create distortion. 

技术转让:技术转让章节规定了有约束力和可执行的义务,以应对美国贸易代表办公室301调查中发现的中国的若干不公平的技术转让行为。 在所有贸易协定中,中国首次同意结束长期以来强迫或施压外国公司向中国公司转让技术并以此作为获得市场准入、行政审批或获得政府优势的条件的做法。 中国还承诺在行政诉讼中提供透明、公平和正当程序,并在市场法则下进行技术转让和许可。 此外,中国还承诺不根据造成扭曲的产业计划,指导或支持旨在获取外国技术的对外投资。


 3. Agriculture: The Agriculture Chapter addresses structural barriers to trade and will support a dramatic expansion of U.S. food, agriculture and seafood product exports, increasing American farmand fishery income, generating more rural economic activity, and promoting job growth. A multitude of non-tariff barriers to U.S. agriculture and seafood products are addressed, including for meat, poultry, seafood, rice, dairy, infant formula, horticultural products, animal feed and feed additives, petfood, and products of agriculture biotechnology. 

农业:农业章节涉及贸易的结构性壁垒,并将支持美国食品、农业和海产品出口的大幅扩大,增加美国农业和渔业收入,创造更多的农村经济活动,促进就业增长。 针对美国农业和海鲜产品的众多非关税壁垒将得到解决,包括肉类、家禽、海鲜、大米、奶制品、婴儿配方奶粉、园艺产品、动物饲料和饲料添加剂、宠物食品以及农业生物技术产品。 

4. Financial Services: The Financial Services chapter addresses a number of longstanding trade and investment barriers to U.S. providers of a wide range of financial services, including banking, insurance, securities, and credit rating services, among others. These barriers include foreign equity limitations and discriminatory regulatory requirements. Removal of these barriers should allow U.S. financial service providers to compete on a more level playing field and expand their services export offerings in the Chinese market. 

金融服务:金融服务章节处理美国金融服务提供商长期存在的贸易和投资壁垒,包括银行、保险、证券和信用评级等服务,包括: 外国股本限制和歧视性监管要求。 消除这些障碍将使美国金融服务提供商能够在更公平的竞争环境中竞争,并扩大它们在中国市场的服务出口产品。 

5. Currency: The chapter on Macroeconomic Policies and Exchange Rate Matters includes policy and transparency commitments on currency issues. The chapter addresses unfair currency practices by requiring high-standard commitments to refrain from competitive devaluations and targeting of exchange rates, while significantly increasing transparency and providing mechanisms for accountability and enforcement. This approach will help reinforce macroeconomic and exchange rate stability and ensure that China cannot use currency practices to unfairly compete against U.S. exporters. 

货币:关于宏观经济政策和汇率事项的章节包括有关货币问题的政策和透明度承诺。 这一章针对(中国)不公平的汇率做法,要求作出高标准的承诺,避免竞争性贬值和(设置)汇率目标,同时显著提高透明度,并提供问责和执行机制。 这种做法将有助于加强宏观经济和汇率稳定,并确保中国不会利用汇率手段不公平地与美国出口商竞争。 

6. Expanding Trade: The Expanding Trade chapter includes commitments from China toimport various U.S. goods and services over the next two years in a total amount that exceeds China’s annual level of imports for those goods and services in 2017 by no less than $200 billion. China’s commitments cover a variety of U.S. manufactured goods, food, agricultural and seafood products, energy products, and services. China’s increased imports of U.S. goods and services are expected to continue on this same trajectory for several years after 2021 and should contribute significantly to the rebalancing of the U.S.-China trade relationship.

 扩大贸易:本章的内容包括: 中国承诺在未来两年内进口美国各种商品和服务,总额在中国2017年对这些商品和服务的年度进口额的基础上增加不低于2000亿美元。 中国的承诺包括美国制造的各种产品、食品、农产品和海产品、能源产品和服务。 中国对美国商品和服务进口的增加预计将在2021年后的几年里继续保持这一趋势,并将对美中贸易关系的再平衡做出重大贡献。

7. Dispute Resolution: The Dispute Resolution chapter sets forth an arrangement to ensure the effective implementation of the agreement and to allow the parties to resolve disputes in a fair and expeditious manner. This arrangement creates regular bilateral consultations at both the principal level and the workinglevel. It also establishes strong procedures for addressing disputes related to the agreement and allows each party to take proportionate responsive actions that it deems appropriate. 

争端解决:本章做了一些安排,以确保本协定得到有效执行,并允许各方以公平和快速的方式解决争端。 这一安排在领导层级别和执行层面建立了定期双边磋商机制。 它还为处理与协议有关的争端建立了强有力的程序,并允许每一当事方采取它认为适当的相应行动。






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